GPT: A Comprehensive Guide


In the realm of artificial intelligence (AI), the Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) has emerged as a game-changing language model. Developed by OpenAI, GPT has been instrumental in powering several natural language processing (NLP) applications, including the AI chatbot, ChatGPT.

What is GPT?

GPT, short for Generative Pre-trained Transformer, is a machine learning model that generates text. It is pre-trained on a vast amount of text data and then fine-tuned to perform specific tasks. The transformer-based architecture of GPT allows it to manage long-range dependencies in text, making it a powerful tool in the field of NLP.

The Role of GPT in ChatGPT

ChatGPT, an AI chatbot, utilizes GPT technology to generate responses that closely resemble human conversation. It learns from and evaluates deep learning models, which enables it to create text from datasets and provide responses to user queries in a human-like manner.

The training model for ChatGPT is known as Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF). In this model, humans simulate conversations with the AI, which then adjusts its responses based on how closely they mirror natural human dialogue. This iterative process helps ChatGPT improve its understanding of user queries over time.

The Evolution from GPT-3.5 to GPT-4

GPT-4 is “OpenAI’s most advanced system, producing safer and more useful responses”, representing a substantial leap forward from GPT-3.5, exhibiting improvements in accuracy, reasoning abilities, and the capacity to manage extended dialogues. While GPT-3.5 operates as a text-to-text model, GPT-4 functions as a data-to-text model. This distinction allows GPT-4 to handle not only text but also visual inputs, thereby broadening its range of application.

In terms of creative output, GPT-4 has shown improved coherence and creativity in generating stories, poems, or essays. It has also demonstrated a better understanding of complex mathematical and scientific concepts, making it a valuable tool for handling technical or specialized content.

Despite its impressive capabilities, GPT, as used in ChatGPT, has its limitations. These include: difficulty in understanding dontext, limited Knowledge, algorithmic biases, training data constraints, uneven factual accuracy.


GPT plays a crucial role in powering AI technologies like ChatGPT. It helps generate text from datasets and provides responses to user queries in a manner that closely resembles human conversation. While it does have limitations, the potential of GPT to revolutionize our interaction with machines is immense. As technology continues to evolve, the future possibilities for GPT and similar models are indeed exciting.

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Former Coinbase CLO Brian Brooks Joins Hashdex’s Board of Directors

Hashdex, a global pioneer in crypto asset management, announced the addition of Brian Brooks to its Board of Directors. The board now expands from four to five members. Brooks, a representative of Hashdex investor Valor Capital Group, will serve as a strategic advisor, providing counsel on global regulation to further Hashdex’s global market growth.

Hashdex, known for co-developing the Nasdaq Crypto Index™ (NCI™) with Nasdaq, provides global investors with a reliable benchmark for the crypto asset class. In 2021, Hashdex introduced the world’s first crypto ETFs and other innovative products, enabling over 225,000 investors to simply and securely add crypto to their portfolios.

Brooks, often referred to as the “first fintech Comptroller,” is recognized as a visionary global leader in financial services, fintech, and cryptocurrency. His career is marked by historic achievements on bank charters, including granting the first fintech and crypto charters, and promoting bank-fintech partnerships. As a member of Hashdex’s Board, Brooks will enhance the firm’s efforts to bridge the gap between the crypto ecosystem and traditional finance, accelerating institutional adoption and scaling key partnerships with financial organizations and policymakers worldwide.

Marcelo Sampaio, Co-Founder and CEO of Hashdex, stated, “Brian’s extensive experience as a leader in financial regulation and the crypto industry will help Hashdex meet our core mission of giving investors simple and secure access to the developing crypto ecosystem. His proven ability to push forward thoughtful, innovation-driven public policy is much needed at this time, and we are thrilled to have him as a partner and advisor.”

Prior to joining Valor, Brooks served as CEO of two blockchain-focused companies and as chief legal officer of global crypto exchange Coinbase. He was also acting U.S. Comptroller of the Currency, heading the U.S. government agency that charters and supervises the national banking system. He served as a member of the FDIC board of directors and as a voting member of the Financial Stability Oversight Council.

Brooks currently serves as a Managing Partner at Valor Capital Group, a Venture Capital fund manager founded in 2011 that pioneered the “Cross-Border” strategy, seeking to act as a bridge between the U.S. and Latin America technology markets. Valor, which invests in transformative businesses from startup to scale-up stages, led Hashdex’s Series A round and has been supporting the company with strategic, business development, and regulatory initiatives in Brazil and abroad.

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a16z Continues to Deposit Maker (MKR) to Coinbase

Venture capital firm a16z has made another significant deposit of Maker (MKR) to Coinbase, as reported by Lookonchain on Twitter on July 23, 2023. The firm deposited 1,380 MKR, equivalent to approximately $1.52 million, into the address “0x127941a7741bf11B0391fE995beB60852e5eC13f”.

This is not the first time a16z has made such a move. On July 21, 2023, Lookonchain reported that a16z deposited 1,500 MKR, worth around $1.73 million, to Coinbase.

Currently, the address “0x127941a7741bf11B0391fE995beB60852e5eC13f” holds a substantial amount of MKR, totaling 5,520 MKR, which is valued at around $6 million.

In addition to a16z’s activities, another significant transaction was reported by Lookonchain. An unidentified whale unstaked 4,210 MKR, equivalent to about $4.85 million, and deposited all the MKR to Binance.

Adding to this, a tweet from EmberCN on July 18, 2023, provides further insight into a16z’s recent MKR transactions.

According to the tweet, a16z has been moving MKR into Coinbase from the address “0xd52055A39a3d2f7505C739f981f296Ea31B50191”. In the past week, 9,004 MKR, valued at approximately $8.43 million, have been transferred to Coinbase from a16z-related addresses. As of the tweet’s date, a16z-related addresses still hold a total of 28,514 MKR, worth around $26.7 million.

The recent transactions by a16z and the unidentified whale may indicate the ongoing selling pressure in the Maker (MKR) market. However, the reasons behind these significant deposits remain unclear. As always, investors and market watchers are advised to conduct their own research and exercise caution when dealing with cryptocurrency investments.

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Alphapo Hot Wallets Drained of Over $23M in BTC, ETH and TRON

Alphapo, a payment processor for various gambling services, reported a breach of their hot wallets today, July 23, 2023. The breach resulted in a loss of over $23 million in Ethereum (ETH), TRON (TRX), and Bitcoin (BTC) cryptocurrencies. The exact amount of BTC stolen remains unclear.

Alphapo is known for processing payments for several gambling services, including HypeDrop, Bovada, and Ignition. Following the incident, HypeDrop, one of Alphapo’s customers, had to disable withdrawals.

The stolen funds on Ethereum were swapped for ETH and then bridged to Avalanche and Bitcoin. The addresses involved in the breach include:

  • 0x040a96659fd7118259ebcd547771f6ecb9580d17
  • 0x6d2e8a20b8afa88d92406d315b67822c01e53c38
  • TDoNAZHa7WxarUAFbQUhiijTGtd7EpbzRh
  • TJF7mdFxDuHB4tb9hoyR4SCpKxk7gr23ym1

In response to a query about the deposit and withdrawal issues, HypeDrop stated, “Our provider is currently working to solve some recent issues from their side, they are facing problems specifically related to withdrawals of BTC, ETH, and TRX, as well as deposits for ETH and TRX. We are actively monitoring the situation with them and will provide you with an update when more information is available. Be assured that if your payment has been affected, your funds are secure 🙂”.

The incident has sparked questions regarding Alphapo’s security protocols and the subsequent effects on its clientele. Observers are keenly following the situation, with further developments anticipated as the inquiry unfolds.

In a related development, a user has raised concerns about HypeDrop’s operations. The user alleges that HypeDrop, managed by an individual named Killian, operates several unregulated online casinos. The user claims that large winners are immediately subjected to a Know Your Customer (KYC) process, which allegedly has been leaked in the past, particularly with their influencers. The user also alleges that the KYC process is never approved. Furthermore, the user criticizes HypeDrop’s policy on their CSGO gambling sites, which allows crypto deposits but not withdrawals, a privilege only granted to influencers and skin suppliers.

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Former Coinbase Executive Joins Magic Eden as Head of Product

Magic Eden, the largest NFT marketplace on the Solana blockchain, announced the appointment of Linus Chung, a former executive at Coinbase, as its Head of Product, according to a PRNewsWire report on July 20, 2023. Chung brings nearly two decades of experience in technology and web3 to the role, where he will lead product development, enhance user experience, drive growth, and develop long-term strategy.

Before joining Magic Eden, Chung served as the Vice President of Product at Origin Protocol and was previously the Director of Product at Coinbase. “I strongly believe in a future where digital ownership, enabled by NFT technology, will become ubiquitous. We are still in the early innings of NFT development,” Chung said in the PRNewsWire report. He expressed his excitement about joining Magic Eden and his eagerness to partner with the web3 community to accelerate NFT adoption through innovation and exceptional product experiences.

Chung has a history of scaling products and businesses, demonstrated during his tenure at Coinbase. He held various leadership roles there, including Director of Product and Head of Growth & Risk. Chung led teams responsible for more than doubling Coinbase’s user base to over 50 million and expanding Coinbase to 100+ countries. He also managed the teams that built and scaled some of Coinbase’s fastest-growing products, such as Coinbase Earn, Coinbase Card, and Coinbase Pay. Prior to Coinbase, Chung served in senior positions at Tesla, Pinterest, and LinkedIn.

Jack Lu, CEO and co-founder of Magic Eden, welcomed Chung’s addition to the team. “Linus is joining us at a really special time when we have a lot of projects cooking across our core user experience, rewards, and cross chain initiatives,” Lu said. He expressed confidence that Chung’s experience and passion for NFTs would help Magic Eden build the best NFT platform in the world.

Magic Eden has recently achieved significant milestones, including becoming the leading Ordinals marketplace and trading $300M since its launch. It has also open-sourced its Solana marketplace contract, released the most intuitive aggregator on chain, and achieved up to 40% in secondary market share for Polygon. Magic Eden aims to build a user-friendly platform for minting and collecting NFTs, bringing dynamic cultural moments onto the blockchain and empowering users across thousands of digital communities to create, discover, and collect unique NFTs.

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GitHub Copilot X: The Future of AI-Powered Software Development

GitHub Copilot X is an advanced version of GitHub’s AI pair programmer, designed to integrate into every part of a developer’s workflow. The platform is a vision for the future of AI-powered software development, featuring chat and terminal interfaces, support for pull requests, and early adoption of OpenAI’s GPT-4.

Key Features

1. Context-Aware Conversations

GitHub Copilot X is equipped with the ability to offer context-aware conversations. This feature empowers developers to ask the AI to elucidate a piece of code or rectify an error. Moreover, it can generate unit tests, thereby enabling developers to concentrate on building their projects.

2. Personalized Documentation

GitHub Copilot X provides personalized answers that are firmly grounded in maintainer-written documentation. This feature significantly reduces the time developers spend searching for information. The process is straightforward: load content, pose a question, and receive the answer.

3. Pull Requests

GitHub Copilot X meticulously tracks a developer’s work, suggests descriptions for pull requests, and aids reviewers in understanding changes through a code walkthrough. Additionally, it offers AI-generated PR descriptions and can identify missing unit tests and generate new test cases after every build.

4. Command Line Interface (CLI) Assistance

GitHub Copilot X can offer assistance directly in the terminal. If a developer forgets how to delete a tag or requires help with multi-step shell commands and scripting, they can ask GitHub Copilot for assistance.

Availability and Pricing

Currently, GitHub Copilot X serves as a representation of GitHub’s vision for the future rather than an available product offering. The company is actively engaged in designing, testing, and building features that align with the GitHub Copilot X vision. The pricing and availability of these features are yet to be determined.

Access Prerequisites

Access to the technical preview features of GitHub Copilot X is not guaranteed by an active or trial subscription to GitHub Copilot for Individuals or GitHub Copilot for Business. Interested users can join the waitlist to preview the features they are interested in. Once access is granted, users should bear in mind that the feature is considered a beta or technical preview, implying it may still have some kinks to be ironed out.

Responsible Use of AI

GitHub is committed to the responsible use of AI. The company applies sentiment analysis to suggestions to prevent the inclusion of slang, slurs, and hate speech in GitHub Copilot responses. It also evaluates the quality of every suggestion and nudges developers toward better quality code. User data is safeguarded with measures such as data encryption both in transit and at rest.

Impact on Developers

Research indicates that GitHub Copilot aids developers in coding faster, staying in the flow longer, and feeling more fulfilled with their work. According to the data provided, 74% of users can focus on more satisfying work, 88% feel more productive, and 96% are faster with repetitive tasks.

The advent of GitHub Copilot X, with its advanced AI capabilities, has sparked discussions about the future role of developers and programmers. This tool can automate repetitive tasks, provide insights, and assist in debugging code, potentially reducing the demand for junior programmers who often handle such tasks.

However, it’s crucial to note that while GitHub Copilot X and similar tools are designed to augment the work of developers, they are not intended to replace them entirely. Despite the automation of certain tasks, these tools currently cannot replicate the unique human abilities such as creativity, problem-solving skills, and strategic thinking that are integral to software development.

The goal of GitHub Copilot X is to make coding more efficient and accessible, thereby enabling developers to focus on higher-level tasks and innovative solutions. In this light, rather than replacing developers, GitHub Copilot X is set to become a valuable tool in their arsenal, enhancing productivity and the quality of work. It may also shift the focus of programming roles, emphasizing more on strategic and creative aspects of software development.

Future Vision

The “X” in GitHub Copilot X represents a placeholder for where GitHub intends Copilot to become available and what it expects it to be capable of doing. It signifies the product’s extension from one experience, code completion, to multiple experiences across the developer’s workflow. The “X” also indicates the magnitude of impact GitHub intends to have on developer achievement. It’s a statement of intent and a commitment to developers as the industry enters the age of AI.

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